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July 24, 2021 at 10:11:11 AM

A Review on Nanofluids, Definition, Classification, Preparation, Characterization Methods and Application

Nanofluids are suspensions of nanoparticles in fluids that show significant
enhancement of their properties at modest nanoparticle concentrations. One of the most plausible applications of nanotechnology is to produce nanoparticles of high thermal conductivity and mixing with the base fluids that transfer energy forming what is called nanofluids. Adding of nanoparticles to the base fluid shows aremarkable enhancement of the thermal properties of the base properties. For this properties there is many research and review were reported to study nanofluids, in this review Definition, Classification, Preparation, Characterization Methods and Application of nanofluids were discussed briefly.

Material Science Letters (IF 2.30) 2021 ° DD(MM) ° XX-XX DOI: 10.1490/XXXX



Modern nanotechnology provides new opportunities to process and produce materials with average crystallite sizes below 50 nm[1], fluids with nanoparticles suspended in them are called nanofluids, a term proposed in 1995 by Choi of the Argonne National Laboratory, U.S.A, [2]. Nanofluids are fluids with nanoparticles suspended in them are called nanofluids. In other words, nanofluids are nanoscale colloidal suspensions containing condensed nanomaterials. They are two-phase systems with one phase (solid phase) in another (liquid phase). [3]. Nanofluids have been shown to improve critical heat flux CHF under pool boiling conditions due to deposits of the nanoparticles on the heater surface [4]. As a bubble nucleates and evaporates, the local nanoparticle concentration increases, leading to their deposition in the vicinity of the nucleation cavities. Experiments with nanofluids of alumina particles under subcooled flow boiling in a large-diameter (8.7 mm) tube under vertical orientation have been investigated [5]. Pure water showed a CHF of 1.44 MW/m2 at an inlet subcooling of 20°C, while the nanofluids with 0.01% by volume alumina nanoparticles resulted in a CHF of 3.25 MW/m2 under a mass flux of 1500 kg/m2 s. The nature of the CHF failure was also noted to be quite different. The CHF with pure water resulted in a catastrophic failure of the tube at the cross-section, while the CHF with the alumina nanoparticles resulted in a localized pinhole type failure. The higher wettability caused by nanoparticle deposits is believed to improve wettability and prevent the growth of local burnout at the CHF location. Although these results are for a macroscale tube, they are included here to illustrate the basic mechanism that may be affecting nanofluid behavior in minicanals and microchannels as well. In a subsequent paper, heat transfer coefficients for the same tests were reported [6]. They observed no appreciable difference in the heat transfer coefficient between the nanofluids and pure water. an experiment was Conducted with copper–water nanofluids in 860-µm vertical channels under flow boiling conditions [7]. They noted that the heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop both increased with the addition of three concentrations, 5 mg/L, 10 mg/L, and 50 mg/L. The heat transfer coefficient increased over the entire range of quality. The heat transfer coefficient with pure water was well correlated [8] The increase in pressure drop observed with nanofluids is somewhat surprising, but it may be caused by the more prominent role played by the bubbles, which are faced with a more hydrophilic surface with nanofluids under subcooled flow boiling conditions [7]. Their two-phase friction pressure drop with pure water was well correlated [9]. Direct dispersion of SiO2 nanoparticles plays a critical role [10]. When the particles were not well dispersed, the heat transfer coefficient decreased by as much as 55% in comparison to pure R-134a in a 7.9-mm inner diameter tube. Well-dispersed nanofluids containing polyester oil with CuO nanoparticles resulted in a 100% increase. The pressure drop increase was insignificant. experiments with deionized water and alumina nanofluids in 510-µm-diameter microchannels under low mass flow rate conditions of 600–1650 kg/m2 s was investigated [11] . They found that CHF with nanofluids increased by 51% with 0.1% by volume of alumina nanoparticles. CHF increased with nanoparticle concentration from 0.001% to 0.1% by volume. They also noted that the pressure fluctuations were quite different with the nanofluids. The surface of a Zirlo tube used in nuclear applications was modified. It was treated with anodic oxidation and resulted in improved wettability [12]. This surface also exhibited up to 60% enhancement in CHF over a plain tube at a mass flux
CC. 4 INTERNATIONAL DISTRIBUTIONA Review on Nanofluids, Definition, Classification, Preparation, Characterization Methods and Application- Mohammed Sulieman Ali Eltoum
of 1500 kg/m2 s. This further confirms that the surface wettability modification is the underlying reason for CHF enhancement with nanofluids. Flow boiling with nanofluids results in the deposition of nanoparticles on the heater surface. This thin layer of nanoparticles changes the surface wettability of the channel walls. The higher wettability alters bubble behavior and enhances CHF. Since deposition of the nanoparticles depends on a number of factors, such as the size and dispersion of the nanoparticles, heat fluxes, nanoparticle–liquid interaction, concentration, duration of operation, and the base surface conditions, significant variations in the experimental results are expected from different sources [13]. Providing a thin nanostructured layer on the heater surface by microfabrication techniques may be an alternate way to realize the same benefits. Nanofluids offered marginal improvement in heat transfer, but the particles deposited in large clusters near the channel exit, causing catastrophic failure [14]. In light of their findings, the longterm benefits on boiling performance need to be validated, and the effect of nanoparticles on the other system components needs to be carefully evaluated before their practical implementation [13]. Recently, nanotechnology has played a major part in multifields of heat transfer processes and developed a remarkable progress in the energy applications. One of the most plausible applications of nanotechnology is to produce nanoparticles of high thermal conductivity and mixing with the base fluids that transfer energy forming what is called nanofluids. Adding of nanoparticles to the base fluid shows a remarkable enhancement of the thermal properties of the base properties. Nanotechnology has greatly improved the science of heat transfer by improving the properties of the energytransmitting fluids. A high heat transfer could be obtained through the creation of innovative fluid (nanofluids). This also reduces the size of heat transfer equipment and saves energy [15].



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