Exceptional Classifications of Non-Hermitian Systems
Eigenstate coalescence in non-Hermitian systems is widely observed in diverse scientific domains encompassing optics and open quantum systems. Recent investigations have revealed that adiabatic encircling of exceptional points (EPs) leads to a nontrivial Berry phase in addition to an exchange of eigenstates. Based on these phenomena, we propose in this work an exhaustive classification framework for EPs in non-Hermitian physical systems. In contrast to previous classifications that only incorporate the eigenstate exchange effect, our proposed classification gives rise to finer Z2 classifications depending on the presence of a π Berry phase after the encircling of the EPs. Moreover, by mapping arbitrary one-dimensional systems to the adiabatic encircling of EPs, we can classify onedimensional non-Hermitian systems characterized by topological phase transitions involving EPs. Applying our exceptional classification to various one-dimensional models, such as the non-reciprocal Su–Schrieffer–Heeger (SSH) model, we exhibit the potential for enhancing the understanding of topological phases in non-Hermitian systems. Additionally, we address exceptional bulk-boundary correspondence and the emergence of distinct topological boundary modes in non-Hermitian systems.